Who is Driving Food Standards?
By: David Saxowsky, Associate Professor
NDSU Agriculture Communication — Feb. 11, 2014
NDSU Agribusiness and Applied Economics Department
Americans enjoy relatively low-cost food when measured as a percent of our
income. For several decades, food expenditures in the U.S. have been between 10
and 11 percent of our disposable income. Canada, Europe and several Pacific Rim
nations are other countries or regions of the world that enjoy relatively low-
cost food. Nations with some of the highest food costs as a percent of income
are Kenya, Cameroon and Pakistan.
An implication of relatively low-cost food is that consumers can be selective in
the foods they purchase and consume. Consumers can choose among low-cost foods,
organic food, ready-to-eat food, raw commodities, gluten-free food, allergen-
free food and numerous other options. If a consumer does not care for a
particular food, there are almost always plenty of alternatives, and many
consumers have the income to pursue those alternatives. U.S. food consumers have
the luxury of being picky.
One expectation that consumers likely agree on is that food needs be safe so
that it does not cause the consumer to become ill. Fortunately, most food in the
U.S. is safe. Even though there are instances of unsafe food, the overall safety
of our food is quite impressive.
However, producing, processing and handling food safely requires a commitment
and effort by all the people and businesses involved in the food industry.
Most people understand that government regulations require safe food practices
for processors, retailers and food service businesses. Many of these people also
recognize that regulations are increasingly addressing food safety at the
production or farm level.
However, regulations are not the only force driving food safety considerations
throughout the industry. Consumer expectations and perceptions are powerful
forces. If consumers perceive that a food may be unsafe, it is easy to select an
alternative or competing product. Thus, food businesses throughout the industry
are imposing quality and safety considerations on their suppliers, such as
farmers who produce agricultural commodities.
Producers and others have expressed their concerns about government directives,
but the industry is probably driving itself more than the government is
regulating the industry. Good agricultural practices and good handling practices
audits and documented food safety plans are only some of the industry's emerging
expectations. As government regulations emerge, they occasionally reference or
cite existing industry standards as evidence that industry expectations often
are ahead of government rules.
Society's regulations through the government sometimes lead food industry
standards, while regulations follow industry standards at other times. America's
wealth also impacts consumers' expectations.
The present and future food industry, from input suppliers through farmers and
processors to retail outlets and food service businesses, is forced to respond
to consumers and one another. Businesses in our food industry focus on one
another as much as they focus on government.